Ecuador is a country in Northwestern South America, with a Pacific Ocean coastline, lying on the Equator between Colombia, to the northeast, and Peru, to the south and east. Cotopaxi is the world's highest active volcano. Many cities and sites are integrated into the prestige Unesco World Heritage Sites. Such cities and best-known places are the Galapagos Islands and the city of Cuenca.
The "Republic of the Ecuador" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.